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A process involving heating and cooling of a metal, commonly used to induce softening. The term refers to treatments intended to alter mechanical or physical properties or to produce a definite or to produce a definite microstructure.

A substance that has metallic properties and is composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is an elemental metal. A metal that contains one or more other elements usually added to increase strength or give the base metal important properties

An electrolytic oxidation process in which the surface of a metal, when anodic, is converted to a coating having desirable protective, decorative, or functional properties.

Automatic press
A press with built-in electrical and pneumatic control in which the work is fed mechanically through the press in synchronism with the press action. 

Automatic press stop
A machine-generated signal for stopping the action of a press, usually after a complete cycle, by disengaging the clutch mechanism and engaging the brake mechanism.

Band sawing
A multi point cutting process during which a workpiece is advanced into a moving continuous band that has cutting teeth along one edge. Using band sawing, parts may be severed from a workpiece. Band sawing can also produce irregular or curved saw cuts. The band sawing process produces a narrow cut or kerf and fine feed marks and a uniform cutting action. 

Bend angle
The angle through which a bending operation is performed, that is, the supplementary angle to that formed by the two bend tangent lines or planes.

Bend radius
The inside radius of a bent section. 

Bend relief
The clearance notch at an end of a flange to allow bending without distorting or tearing adjacent material.

Bend ability
It is defined as the minimum bending radius attainable by a given material.

A term typically applied to a metal forming process. It is the creation of a formed feature by angular displacement of a sheet metal workpiece. The straining of material, usually flat sheet or strip metal, by moving it around a straight axis lying in the neutral plane. Metal flow takes place within the plastic range of the metal, so that the bent part retains a permanent set after removal of the applied stress. The cross section of the bend inward from the neutral plane is in compression; the rest of the bend is in tension. See forming.

Bending brake or press brake
A form of open-frame single-action press that is comparatively wide between the housings, with a bed designed for holding long, narrow forming edges or dies. Used for bending and forming strip, plate, and sheet (into boxes, panels, roof decks, and so on).

The operation of punching, cutting, or shearing a piece out of stock to a predetermined shape.

Brake forming
Press braking is a metal forming process that uses an open-frame single-action press used to bend, blank, corrugate, curl, notch, perforate, pierce, or punch sheet metal or plate using a U- shaped, V-shaped, or channel-shape punch or die set.

Brake press bending
An operation that produces various degree bends when fabricating parts from steel.

A thin ridge, raised sharp edge, or roughness left on forgings or sheet metal blanks by cutting operations such as slitting, shearing, trimming, punching, blanking, or sawing.

A common term for deburring or smoothing the rough cut edges of metal.

Carbon Steel
A steel that owes its specific properties chiefly to the presence of carbon, without substantial amounts of other alloying elements. Also termed ordinary steel, straight carbon steel, or plain carbon steel.

CNC punch press
Machine supplying compression force for reshaping materials and being controlled by a computer numerical control device.

Cold rolled steel
A mill product produced from a hot-rolled pickled coil that has been given substantial cold reduction at room temperature. The usual end product is characterized by improved surface, greater uniformity in thickness, and improved mechanical properties as compared with hot-rolled sheet.

Conversion Coating
A coating produced by chemical or electrochemical treatment of a metal solution that gives a superficial layer containing a compound of the metal, for example chromate coatings of zinc and cadmium, oxide coating on steel

A funnel shaped enlargement at the outer end of a drilled hole having angle to allow the head of a screw to be flush with or below the surface.

Draw Marks
Impressions such as scratches, burnished areas, and similar marks left on the surface of the workpiece, part, or panel by a draw die.

A process for producing raised or sunken designs in sheet material by means of male and female dies, theoretically with no change in metal thickness.

A metal forming process which a punch compresses a billet (hot or cold) confined in a container so that the billet material flows through a die in the same direction as the punch.

A number of metalworking techniques that allow a part to be assembled from smaller components. Welding, adhesive bonding and fastening by the use of bolts and rivets are the most widely used examples.

Ferrous metal
A metal which are iron-based.

The texture of the steel surface which is determined by the grit on the rolls or by the grind on the rolls in the case of bright finish.

Tooling designed to locate and hold components in position.

A projecting rim or edge of a part, usually narrow and of approximately constant width for stiffening or fastening.

A bend, or the process of bending a metal formed part.

The plastic deformation of a billet or a blanked sheet between tools (dies) to obtain the final configuration. Metal forming processes are typically classified as bulk forming and sheet forming. Also referred to as metalworking. Making any change in the shape of a metal piece which does not intentionally reduce the metal thickness and which produces a useful shape.

The thickness of sheet or the diameter of wire. The various standards are arbitrary and differ with regard to ferrous and non-ferrous products as well as sheet and wire. Also, an aid for visual inspection that enables an inspector to determine more reliably whether the size or contour of a formed part meets dimensional requirements.

A bend of 180' made in two steps. First, a sharp-angle bend is made; next, the bend is closed using a flat punch and a die.

Hydraulic press brake
A press brake in which the ram is actuated directly by hydraulic cylinder.

Laser cutting
A cutting process that severs material with the heat obtained by directing a laser beam against a metal surface.

This is the group of processes in which a shape is generated by removing unwanted material. Machining can be used to make a component from stock material but more often it is used as a secondary process to impart a shape or a level of precision to a manufactured component that cannot be achieved otherwise. Shape restrictions exist for some machining processes.

Mechanical press brake
A press brake using a mechanical drive consisting of a motor, flywheel, crankshaft, clutch, and eccentric to generate vertical motion.

The material subjected to an operation of a forming class type. An elemental metal or alloy of metal mixture in a self-shape-sustaining state (excluding molten, gaseous, or powdered).

A metal fabricating reduction process of cutting away material by feeding a workpiece past a rotating multiple tooth cutter. The cutting action of the many teeth around the milling cutter provides a fast method of machining. The machined surface may be flat, angular, or curved. The surface may also be milled to any combination of shapes. See Drilling, Grooving, Tapping, and Turning.

Non-ferrous metal
Elements and their alloys without iron as a major constituent.

A metalworking operation in which the punch removes material from the edge or corner of a strip or blank or part.

Bending metal a greater amount than called for in the finished piece to allow for springback.

A flat-rolled metal product of some minimum thickness and width arbitrarily dependent on the type of metal. Sheet steel thicker than 7 gauge 0.179 in. (4.55 mm) or sheet aluminum thicker than 3/16 in (4.76 mm).

Plate bending
Plate roll bending is a cold forming process. Plate or steel metal is formed into cylindrical shapes by using a combination of three rolls arranged in a pyramid formation. Two of the rolls are power driven, in a fixed position, while the third roll is adjustable to meet the required bend radius and workpiece thickness.

Powder coating
A type of dry coating, which is applied as a free-flowing, dry powder. The main difference between a conventional liquid paint and a powder coating is that the powder coating does not require a solvent to keep the binder and filler parts in a liquid suspension form. The coating is typically applied electrostatically and is then cured under heat.

A mechanically powered machine that shears, punches, forms or assembles metal or other material by means of cutting, shaping, or combination dies attached to slides. A press consists of a stationary bed or anvil, and a slide (or slides) having a controlled reciprocating motion toward and way from the bed surface, the slide being guided in a definite fixed path by the frame of the press.

Press brake
An open-frame single-action press used to bend, blank, corrugate, curl, notch, perforate, pierce, or punch sheet metal or plate.

Press forming
Any sheet metal forming operation performed with tooling by means of a mechanical or hydraulic press.

The male part of a die-as distinguished from the female part, which is called the die. The punch is usually the upper member of the complete die assembly and is mounted on the slide or in a die set for alignment. In double-action draw dies, the punch is the inner portion of the upper die, which is mounted on the plunger (inner slide) and does the drawing. Also referred to as punching it is the act of piercing or punching a hole. The punch is the movable part that forces the metal into the die in equipment for sheet drawing, blanking, coining, embossing.

Roll form
A metal shape that has been processed using roll forming.

A type of cutting operation in which the metal object is cut by means of a moving blade and fixed edge or by a pair of moving blades that may be either flat or curved. The type of force that causes, or tends to cause, two contiguous parts of the same body to slide relative to each other in a direction parallel to their plane of contact.

Cutting force applied perpendicular to material causing the material to yield and break.

Any material or piece of uniform thickness and of considerable length and width as compared to its thickness. With regard to metal, such pieces under 6.5 mm (1/4 in.) thick are called sheets, and those 6.5 MM (1/4") thick and over are called plates. Occasionally, the limiting thickness for steel to be designated as sheet steel is No. IO Manufacturer's Standard Gage for sheet steel, which is 3.42 mm (0.1345") thick.

Tensile strength
The maximum stretching that a material is capable of withstanding without breaking under a gradually and uniformly applied load.

V-bend die
A die commonly used in press-brake forming, usually machined with a triangular cross-sectional opening to provide two edges as fulcrums for accomplishing three-point bending.

Wet painting
Spray technique using wet paints with solvents and binders.

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